**At 6 pm on August 8th, Beijing time, the International Theoretical Physics Center (ICTP) awarded the Dirac Award in 2023 to four American physicists to recognize their important and extensive contributions to the theory of string theory. They are Jeffrey Harvey, Igor Klebanov, Stephen Shenker, and Leonard SussKind.**

**Dirac Medal**In 1985, an annual award was established to commemorate the founder of quantum mechanics and British theoretical physicist Paul Dirac, and it was the highest honor in the field of theoretical physics and mathematical physics. The medal is not awarded the Nobel Prize, the Fernz Award and the Wolf Award, but the Dirac Medal winner can still be awarded the Nobel Prize and other awards. August 8th is Dirac’s birthday. Therefore, the award list of the Dirac Medal is scheduled on this day every year.

Atish Dabholkar, director of the International Theoretical Physics Center, said that this year’s winners have made many original contributions to the theoretical framework of the development strings. The goal is to unify all physical interactions including gravity. Their work has brought about black holes physics New insights of learning have achieved significant concept breakthroughs through new principles of duality and holographic, especially in the aspects of abnormalities, puppets, black holes, and holographic.

**Unified physical theory**

Physicists believe that the theory of string is the unified theory of physics, combining Einstein’s general theory of relativity (describing gravity) and quantum mechanics (describing the basic elements of substances). It can do this by re -imagining the basic block of substances as tiny vibration strings. Just like the different vibration patterns of the violin strings produce different notes, the different vibration status of the string produces different basic particles by determining their properties (such as quality or charge), such as electron or neutrinos.

String theory is of great significance in solving several problems in basic physics, and has been applied to various fields, such as the research of black holes, early cosmic and condensing state substances. Because of its complex and strict expressions, it has contributed to the major development of pure mathematics.

# Dirac Medal Laurether in 2023

**Jeffrey Harvey** It is a professor of service physics at the University of Chicago, the University of Chicago, the University of Chicago. He is an academician of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the American Institute of Physics, and a member of the National Academy of Sciences. He is a member of the Council of the Science Council of the International Theoretical Physics Center and the former trustees of the Princeton High Research Institute in New Jersey.

**Igor Klebanov** It is a professor of Physics at the University of Princeton University. He obtained a doctorate degree in theoretical high -energy physics from Princeton University, and then conducted postdoctoral research at Stanford Line Accelerator Center. He is an academician of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and academicians of the National Academy of Sciences. The 2014 Tomassoni Award for the University of Sapienza, Rome.

**Stephen Shenker**It is a professor of physics at Richard Herschel Weiland University in Stanford University in the United States. He obtained a doctorate at Cornell University and served as a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Chicago and the Institute of theoretical Physics of Santa Barbara. From 1998 to 2008, he served as the director of the Stanford Theoretical Physics Research Institute. In 2010, he won the LARS ONSAGER Award from the American Institute of Physics.

**Leonard Susskind**It is Felix Broch, a professor of theoretical physics at Stanford University in the United States. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the Academy of Arts and Sciences, a prospective member of the Institute of theoretical Physics of the Canadian Period, and an outstanding professor at the Korean High Research Institute. Saskind received a PhD at Cornell University. In 1997, he was awarded the J.J. Sakurai Award to recognize him “the pioneering contribution to the theory of strong sub -string models, lattice standard, quantum dynamics and dynamic symmetrical destruction.” Saskind is widely considered to be one of the founders of the theory.

# The contribution of the winner to the string theory

The widespread contribution of this year’s Dirac Medal to the theory reflects the extensive scope of the framework. The following is a summary of the theoretical related to the theory of the medal.

**Jeffrey Harvey discovered the theory of miscellaneous string theory with GROSS, Martinec and Rohm), which naturally caused a unified theory that can be included in the standard model of particle physics.**His work on his folds (collaborated with Dixon, VAFA and Witten) provides the precise world table structure of such models. He created a study of lonely and membranes, which played a vital role in discovery and understanding. His work in abnormal inflows (cooperation with Callan) found important applications in condensed physics.

In a basic paper about the topic,**Igor Klebanov has developed a precise dictionary corresponding to the holographic ADS/CFT as a holographic ADS/CFT.**He has built examples of holographic gravitational puppets that restrict the theory of standardization theory (cooperated with Strasler), which have many applications in model construction.

**Stephen She and Leonard SussKind (together with Banks and Fischler) develop the first non -disturbance formula of the M the theory of M the theory by providing the restriction process of describing the S matrix.**

The other influential contributions of Shenker include the structure analysis of the structure of the specification theory (with Vladkin), the classification of the two -dimensional co -formion theory (with Frigan and Qiu), the formula of the theory of the super string theory ( With Friend and Martinek), non -disturbance formulas (with Douglas), and new connections between chaos and black holes (with Sad and Stanford).

Susskind was one of the earliest people who realized that the puppet model could be explained by string. His other influential contributions include the work between his connection between the theory of normative theory (and Kogut), the occurrence and technical color (with DIMOPOULOS), the holographic theory and the black hole in the Hamiton Calcid.

Reference link:

https://www.ictp.it/news/2023/8/ictp-announces-2023-dirac-medallists

–ICTP official website, Zhishe academic circle