Before reading the article, you can click “Follow” for easy discussions and sharing. The author will live up to expectations and create better content on time and quantity.
Text | Lanting Preface History
Edit | Lanting Preface History
In 1935, for the sake ofSolve the problem of sugar cane pests in Australia, A British passed the ship thousands of miles,105 sea toads were brought back from South America。
But the gods who were passed on in South America“Sugarcane toad”, After AustraliaWhat is uselessInstead, it was covered with northern Australia.
Many years later, Australia knew themPlayed, But in the faceOver 100 million can only let the crocodiles hide from the sea toadThey can only cry without tears.
So, what’s special about this toad can be called the king in Australia? And how does it change from the nominarian recipe to the confidant of Australians?
Mainland Australia, which can flood the disaster
Speaking of the sea toads that flooded in Australia, I have to mention it first,This magical land in Australia。
Since the Australian mainland is the only two pieces in the worldOne of the mainland blocks surrounded by seawaterThis has led to its long -term and northern hemisphere continentLost species connection with other mainland。
Therefore, it has also spawned Australia’s unique biological system. This has become a sacred place for survival of bags for survival, the land is large, the land is vast, and the land is vast, andNo large carnivores exist。
Australia’s animals are born with no natural enemies and sorrows, andOnce a new species from the outside world comes in, it is simply the tiger into the sheep, and everything has flooded.
Not to mention, the British in the 18th century were fun and took the first onerabbitBring it to Australia. At first, it was just a rabbit breeding, but after breeding was too fast, some rabbits bite the fence. The “escape” was successful and fled to the wild.
At first, people were not too serious, but in the ecology of Australia, I never thought of it, there would be such a strong breeding species. Less than decades,The scale of rabbits in Australia has reached tens of billions。
In the case of sweeping the grass in groups, even when there were no natural enemies threatened, the shape was getting bigger and bigger. It once invaded the human activity area. The local local species were bullied “wolf escaped”.
Seeing that the ecosystem itself cannot mediate, humans have begun to intervene, various killings, and various deportations.The “Rabbit Battle” lasted for more than 100 years, but the result was that the rabbit killed more and more。
Similar foreign species have not only happened on rabbits, but also include foxes, wild goats, and wild boars.
But compared with the sea toad, it is really a little witch.
The largest toad in the world
The scientific name of the sea toad is,Giant sea toadEssence Usually, the body can grow to more than 15 cm, the maximum is even close to 30 cm, and the weight can reach a few pounds of weight.
Although it is a well -deserved giant in the toad class, it is actually not enough to look at the entire nature.
So why, can it be restless, the whole Australian chickens and dogs?
In fact, it is mainly because it has a unique trick with one hand and horizontal.That is poison。
Although everyone knows that toads are poisonous, they are one of the so -called folk five poisons. But in everyone’s impression, it seems that the toad’s toxicity is still limited, but the toad of the sea toad is not the same as small.
On its eyes later and the back side of the tympanic membrane, one left and right pairs,In the obvious ears and acin glands, full of venom is full, That is, the toad crisp.
And the skin and other glands on the back also contain toxins. The most irritable is that it has just produced the fertilized eggs to grow up to the complete body.The entire life stage is all toxic。
Not only do individuals have natural protection measures, but the life adaptation ability of Hai toad is still stubborn. theyOriginally lived in China and South America。
Although there is a sea character in the name, in fact, theyThe scope of life does not need to have seawater existenceJust when spawning and breeding, you need to go to the water area, whether it is fresh water or seawater.
In fact, the environment they can actually survive spans 4 to 42 degrees, and most of the time is on the land, it is veritableAmphibians。
So, it is obviously a species in Central and South America, but not like rabbits and the like, can be raised as pets.At the beginning of the British, he had a hot mind. What about this “ugly thing” brought to Australia?
Foreign “monks” can read the scriptures
It is necessary to return to the beginning of the last century, with the popularization and development of global industrialization in Europe and the United States,sucroseThis item has completely become a sought -after commodity.
For benefits, there must be a keen capitalist who has a keen sense of smell. In 1914, the British startedWalesSmall -scale sugarcane planting was performed.
Because Australia’s good weather conditions and vast land are too suitable for planting, which has led to the continuous expansion of sugarcane planting area in the next 20 years, andAustralia has become the main country in the world。
But everyone knows that the crops of sugarcane are also easily invaded from the root to the stems because of sugar. At this point, it fully reflects the things that people like more sweetly, and even bugs are no exception.
Although this is the law of nature, since it is planted as a crop, it must be consideredHow to eliminate diseases and insect pests。
At that time, the biochemicals were not so powerful today, nor did they develop various drug spray targets for diseases and insect pests. The only soil method they could think of wasCure。
But it can eliminate the pests in the sugar cane and does not damage the species of the sugarcane itself. What is so easy to find?
So the capital vision was found globally globally. Don’t say that there is really good news back.The owner of the sugarcane plantation in China and South America recommended them a magical animal -sea toad。
Don’t look at the ugly family, but it is fast and accurate when eating the pests. And it is particularly easy to feed. Only dozens of people are placed in the manor, and the others are all needless. They will quickly breed themselves and sweep the nearby pests.
At first the British were a little suspicious of this statement, until 1933,“Nature” magazineI published a question in the topic entitled“Sugarcane toad” contribute to the sucrose industryAfter the article, the British believed a thorough letter.
Coupled with 1935, Australian sugar cane diseased pests led to large -scale local production reduction. The idea of rushing to the medical treatment,The British brought 105 American Haitian toads to Australia through cruise ships, and kindly called them sugarcane toad。
After these sugarcane toads arrived at the place, they were concentrated and breed first, and soon expanded to more than 60,000. The host of the sugar cane manor in Queensland came to get a large number of toads brought back and released.
They look forward to these “little cuteness” to help them eliminate the pests, but the reality is that these people are fierce.
Because the pests in the sugar cane are mainly usedGray beetleMainly, this type of beetle often produces eggs at 20-30 cm underground. From the beginning of birth, it has eaten the rhizome of sugarcane. When it grows up, it will fly directly to the top of the sugarcane rod to eat the leaves.
However, the weight of “sugarcane toad” determines that it is difficult to jump high, let alone the gray -back beetle that is high enough.
Obviously, it is an unreliable method to cure diseases and insect pests by toads. So why did it have effect in China and South America, and a research papers have been released?
It turned out that the reduction of pests and pests in the original and South America was not the credit of the sugarcane toad, but it was justA large number of pests and insect pests caused by changes in local natural weatherThe study of thesis is also rare to ignore this consideration.
A big oolong made the British make a group. However, although things were confirmed, the Australians were not too serious. Just add new vitality to the species of the Australian mainland.
However, they really underestimated the power of sugarcane toads and overestimated the combat effectiveness of Australian species.
Excessive 100 million toads
After a few years, the Australians found that things were far from being as simple as they thought.Even the problem of toad seems to be more tricky than the rabbit problem at that time.
Due to the strong reproductive ability of this sea toad, female can spawn 8000-30000 pieces at a time, and all year round is a breeding period.
Since it is a foreign species,The toxins it carried by itself has no resistance at all for Australian speciesThere is no targeted antibody, which is disastrous for the local ecology.
And it is not only a vegetarian than a rabbit. It is eaten all the things. From small insects to birds, there are vertebrates, and even human residual garbage.As long as it can swallow its mouth, all of them will not refuse。
At first, it was stored in the sugarcane forest, but the flying high pests could not satisfy its appetite, so it began to expand outward. When I came to the outside world, as if I was in heaven.
Large animals, even pythons and crocodiles will be poisoned by the toxins of its body surface, how can we talk about some small animals. Unconsciously,The humble species of Hai toad actually became the Turkish overlord on the Australian continent.
And its pretty horizontal is not only there. Every time during the reproduction, a large number of male toads began to fight, begging for puppets, holding eggs. But the proportion of female sea toads is relatively small.
This also appears a large number of male toads that cannot find a spouse. They start to ignore it.Climb to the python, and even the crocodile.
Because the pythons and crocodiles have all tasted the powerful toad poison, they can also choose to swallow the sneer in this kind of riding behavior, and let the toad Hu Lai.
This also appears a rare picture of toad riding snakes.
Of course, the harm of Hai toad is not just talking, there are detailed data proof,After the introduction of sea toads in 1935, Australian crocodiles and python species were sharply reduced by more than 70%, and even birds in the air decreased sharply.
As the sea toad breeds more and more,Today’s scale has already exceeded 100 millionEssence They are expanding to the south at a speed of about 15 kilometers per year.
Wherever you go, not only the animals are disaster, but even the cats and dogs raised by humans have suffered.
Australians have not thought about governance and eliminating these sea toads, but it is too difficult to act in actual operation. Although the government has promulgated a reward for killing, the people and the army have also encouraged the people and the army to participate in the killing.The effect is minimal。
Today, toads everywhere in northern Australia have seriously affected people’s daily life. Fortunately, nature is fair and biological evolution.
Now more than 80 years have passed,There are also some local species who have learned smartThey will also distinguish the non -toxic parts of the sea toad’s body. Now some crows know that there is no problem with the tongue, internal organs, and abdomen and belly of the sea toad.
However, these new reproduction of these sea toads is still too insignificant.At present, Hai toad is still the number one in Australia’s invasion species.
It is estimated that everyone would not have thought that the 105 toads that had been brought at first could cause such a big trouble.
To treat nature, we humans are really universal, and we need to be more awe of this world in life.