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Today we will talk about the changes in the desert during the historical period. Regarding the desertification of the land in my country, people have misunderstood for a long time. For example, we sometimes think The reason why deserts in some places in my country are disappearing related to global warming; governing desert is tree planting and making forests.
The deserts in my country are mainly divided into two types, namely the desert of the grassland and the desert in the desert areas. There are four main deserts in the grassland area. There are seven main deserts, Taklama Ganyan Desert, Hexi Corridor Desert, Tenggri Desert, Gulba Tonggut Desert, the Chaidama Basin Desert, Badan Jilin Desert, and Kuma Tag Desert. Most of the deserts in the desert areas are formed in the geological period. Before humans appear, the desert is already the desert. The activity is closely related. Therefore, governing the desert or planting trees in the desert is mainly for deserts in the grassland area. Land that occurs desertified due to human activities, it is necessary to restore vegetation again. It has become a desert place, and there is no need to plant trees and afforestation at all.
In the historical period, overall, the desert of my country is expanding, and some deserts are now only controlled, rather than disappearing. After the ecological environment is destroyed, the natural repair ability of the earth is elastic. In a drought and rainy environment, vegetation is difficult to recover, and in a warm and humid environment, vegetation is easily recovered. It is difficult for humans to restore the original ecological environment through manpower. Regarding this, the virgin forest is an example. When the forest is cut off, the forest that is re -growing is the second forest. The ecosystem of the entire forest is in the forest. For a long time, it cannot be completely recovered.
First: The desert of the geological period
The Taklama Gan Desert is the largest desert in my country and is mainly formed in the geological period. The Taklama Ganan Desert was originally a shallow sea. Due to the impact of the Indian Ocean plate and the Asian European sector, the Qinghai -Tibet Plateau gradually rose. Turned into a desert. There are alpine blocks around the Taklama Ganyan desert. Not only are Indian ocean water vapor difficult to reach, the water vapor of the Pacific, Atlantic and Arctic Ocean is difficult to reach. The annual precipitation does not exceed 100 mm, and the evaporation volume is far greater than the precipitation. So how did the oasis in the historical period of the Taklama Ganan Desert formed? Mainly rely on the river, and the water source of the river mainly comes from the mountains and snow melting water. There are many rivers in the Taklama Ganan Desert. The largest river is the Tarim River. The largest lake is Lop Nur.
The oasis on the Taklamagan Desert are mainly distributed along the foothills of Tianshan, Kunlun Mountain, and Alkina. Tianshan is north of the Taklama Ganan Desert, while the Kunlun Mountains and Alkina are on the south of the Taklama Gaman Desert. The oasis on the edge are the main points of traffic on the south and middle roads of the Silk Road. End, Jingju, Yu Yan, Shacai, reaches the onion ridge. The good, Yu Yan, and Sha Che are all famous oasis. The oasis are very developed here. Zi, Gu Mo, Shule, arrived in Dawan.
Yangguan in the Han Dynasty, about 60 kilometers southwest of Dunhuang City, Gansu Province today, in the south of Yumen Pass, Wang Wei, a poet in the Tang Dynasty, has poetry: “Weicheng is light and dust in the rain, and the guests are new. A glass of wine, there is no reason to go out of the west. “The south road of the Silk Road, after leaving the Yangguan, entered the Tarim Basin, and walked along the edge of the Takrama -Gangyan Desert. Until today, Pakistan, India and other places, or to the Kabul in Afghanistan today, Mashhad, Iran, Damascus in Syria, and directly leading to Europe. Yumen Pass in the Han Dynasty, about 90 kilometers northwest of Dunhuang City, Gansu Province today, the Tang Dynasty poet Wang Zhizheng had a poem: “The Yellow River is from the distance between the white clouds and a lone city.
Yangguan and Yumengguan are not far away. However, the Silk Road is out of Yumen Pass as the middle path, and the Yangguan is the South Road. Teacher, 、, Guizi, Guso, Shule, and Dawan, Dawan in “Historical Records” and “Hanshu”, in the Fernanna Basin in Central Asia today, the Ferganna Basin today The junction of Stan, Tajikistan and Gilgis Stan, here is arid, but the river is vertical and horizontal, so the agriculture is very developed, and the Han Dynasty is also very rich.
During the Han and Tang dynasties, people could not directly cross the Taklama -Ganan desert, but passed the oasis on the edge of the Taklama Ganan Desert. These oasis were located on the foothills of Tianshan, Kunlun and Alkin. The Taklama Gan Desert is between Tianshan, Kunlun and Alkin, and the north of Tianshan is the Junggar Basin. The precipitation of the Junggar Basin is relatively rich. From Guazhou, Yiwu, Tingzhou, and Ili, which passed the northern foot of Tianshan Mountain, reached the crushing Yecheng.
The Taklama -Ganan Desert was formed during the geological period. Therefore, the oasis are distributed along the river, and human activities will cause the river runoff. Once the riverside flow is reduced, the oasis will be deserted. In the wind and sand.
In the desert formed in the geological period, there are Tengger Desert, Badan Jilin Desert, the Kumtag Desert and the Chaidama Desert. Generally speaking, the desert formed in the geological period is caused by natural reasons, and human beings’s The activity caused the desert that had been formed in the geological period to expand. The desert formed in the geological period often shows a tendency to expand due to the destruction of the ecological environment. For example, the oasis agriculture on the Taklama Ganan Desert was very prosperous during the Han and Tang dynasties. Before the Tang Dynasty, Helan Mountain Forest resources in the south of the Tengger Desert were very rich. Due to human reclamation activities, the Tengger Desert continued to move towards the southeast. In the Qing Dynasty, the desert had crossed the Yellow River. The desert formed in the geological period is often difficult to reverse because of human activities, because water resources are too small.
Second: The desert formed in the historical period
The desert in the grassland areas in my country is mainly formed in the historical period, which is formed by human activities. The desert formed in the historical period of my country is mainly Hulunbea Sand, Korqin Sand, Maowu Sansha, Ulanbu and Desert. Essence
Hulunbuelsa is located in the eastern area of Inner Mongolia. We all know that my country’s precipitation is decreasing from the southeast coast to the northwest. The eastern area of Inner Mongolia is a rich place in water and grass. Why does it form a desert here? Mainly humans destroy the forests and grasslands here, and the purpose of destroying the forest and grassland is to reclaim the land. After the Tang Dynasty, the Hulunbuir grassland rivers and lakes were surrounded by the reclamation activities. Integrated.
Korqin Sand is located in the southeast of Inner Mongolia, and the west of Jilin and Liaoning is also distributed. East and southeast of Inner Mongolia are the origin of Xianbei, the Khitan, and Mongolians in the history of our country. It is also located here. Therefore, Kerqin Sand Land, like Hulunbuir Sand, is a rich area in history. The reason why it is now a desert is mainly caused by human reclamation activities. Formed a desert, and before that, this is actually a grassland.
The boundary between the monsoon area and the non -monsoon area in my country is the front line of Daxinganling, Yin Mountain, Helan Mountain, Bayanhara Mountain, and Gangshan Mountain, which is roughly consistent with the amount of precipitation such as 400 mm. Therefore, most areas of Korqin Sand and Hulunbuir Sand can be restored to grasslands. We plant trees in the desert is mainly for the desert formed in the historical period, and the desert formed in the non -geological period.
Maowu Su Saidi and Ulanbu and Deserts are also formed during the historical period. Maowu Susha is located in the southern area of the Ordos Plateau in Inner Mongolia, spanning Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, and Shaanxi. Wancheng is also located in Maowu Sanda. The Guan Wancheng was built by Emperor Daxia Herren. Daxia was one of the “Sixteen Kingdoms” in the Wei, Jin, Northern and Southern Dynasties. “Guangze brought Qingliu”, while the Northern Song Dynasty began to desertize, and in the Ming Dynasty, it was completely annihilated into the wind and sand. During the late Qing Dynasty, as humans continued to reclaim, Mao Wusu Desert became larger and larger, and continued to extend to the southeast and northwest.
Ulanbu and Desert are located in the south of Inner Mongolia, on the west bank of the Yellow River, north of Helan Mountain. Due to the scouring effect of the Yellow River, although the amount of deposits are formed, although the precipitation is scarce, the water resources are abundant. Ulanbu and the desert are also lush in the grassland. First, four counties in Shuofang County in the Western Han Dynasty were located in Wulanbu and Desert, namely Sanfeng County, Takayu County, Woko County, and Lin Rong County. Most of them have been drowned in the sand.
Helan Mountain and Yin Mountain are the dividing lines of seasonal stomachs and non -seasonal climate in my country. Maowu Su Desert, Wulanbu, Desert, and Tenggri Desert are located around Helan Mountain. The grassland ecological environment here is very fragile. Due to the unreasonable reclamation activities of human beings, the grassland can easily degenerate into sand.
Third: global warming and my country’s desert
In the historical period, the desert in my country is actually showing a tendency to expand. Now, due to the afforestation of strong plants, the sand in some places has gradually restored vegetation. However, this does not mean The desert in some places has been controlled and will not be expanded. We must also realize that tree -planting afforestation is very water -consuming. Trees in the desert need to be irrigated to survive. Therefore, in those geological periods, it has become a desert area. The tension of resources, and turning the place where the desert should have become a forest, which will cause human interference with global climate. Originally, the grassland and the forest should be restored to the original state, and the annual water reduction in these places is maintained at about 300 mm to 400 mm. Once the forest and grassland are restored, they can be maintained for a long time.
So, will the global climate warming increase the humidity and temperature of my country’s climate? So as to help the disappearance of the desert in my country? No evidence indicates that the current global climate warming will increase precipitation to the northern hemisphere. On the contrary, global warming can increase the extreme weather phenomenon worldwide. During the Han and Tang dynasties, my country’s climate was indeed warm and humid than it is now. The litchi eaten by Yang Guifei comes from the Sichuan Basin instead of the Lingnan area. The global warming is caused by human activities. Since the industrial revolution, humans have discharged carbon dioxide to atmosphere since the industrial revolution. Today’s global climate warming is mainly due to the increase in temperature, not the increase in water dropping. On the contrary, because human beings continue to consume water resources, it has also caused a decrease in surface runoff flow. With the degree of loading in nature, the supply of water sources is far greater than the loss of water sources.
In the history of our country, it has indeed experienced several periods of cold and cold alternation. For example, the temperature in the Western Han Dynasty and the Tang Dynasty was higher than now, and the temperature in the Ming and Qing Dynasties was much lower. The climate is tending to dry and cold. Therefore, the runoffs of the main rivers in my country have shown less and less trend, and over -reclamation activities and unreasonable development of human beings have also exacerbated this natural process. The biggest difficulty to face the governance of desert areas in my country is that the climate of nearly 10,000 years in my country has tended to dry and cold. In the context, those deserts that were originally grasslands and forests are very difficult to recover vegetation again.
We must realize that once the ecological environment is destroyed, the natural reverseability is relatively small. Even in the tropical rain forest area with very rich water resources, the ecological environment of the virgin forest is destroyed and cannot be completely recovered. It is even more difficult to restore natural vegetation in grasslands and desert areas with very rare precipitation. Therefore, the ecological environment of humans protecting the earth first stops new destruction and then recovers the ecological environment that has been destroyed.
In summary, the primary task of human governance desert is actually to prevent the desert from further expanding and control the desert, rather than transforming the desert in a natural state into forests and grasslands. It is very difficult for the grassland. The governance of the desert is first to protect water resources. After the water resources are protected, the vegetation can gradually recover.
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